D. Di Pasquale , F. Zhu , M. Cross , M. Savill , T. Kipouros
EngOpt 2016 – 5rd International Conference on Engineering Optimization
This work deals with the aerodynamics optimisation of a generic two-dimensional three element high-lift configuration. Although the high-lift system is applied only during take-off and landing in the low speed phase of the flight the cost efficiency of the airplane is strongly influenced by it . The ultimate goal of an aircraft high lift system design team is to define the simplest configuration which, for prescribed constraints, will meet the take-off, climb, and landing requirements usually expressed in terms of maximum L/D and/or maximum CL. The ability of the calculation method to accurately predict changes in objective function value when gaps, overlaps and element deflections are varied is therefore critical. Despite advances in computer capacity, the enormous computational cost of running complex engineering simulations makes it impractical to rely exclusively on simulation for the purpose of design optimisation. To cut down the cost, surrogate models, also known as metamodels, are constructed from and then used in place of the actual simulation models. This work outlines the development of integrated systems to perform aerodynamics multi-objective optimisation for a three-element airfoil test case in high lift configuration, making use of surrogate models available in MACROS Generic Tools, which has been integrated in our design tool. Different metamodeling techniques have been compared based on multiple performance criteria. With MACROS is possible performing either optimisation of the model built with predefined training sample (GSO) or Iterative Surrogate-Based Optimization (SBO). In this first case the model is build independent from the optimisation and then use it as a black box in the optimisation process. In the second case is needed to provide the possibility to call CFD code from the optimisation process, and there is no need to build any model, it is being built internally during the optimisation process. Both approaches have been applied. A detailed analysis of the integrated design system, the methods as well as the optimisation results of the comparison between the techniques is provided.